The Industrial Revolution in Europe
The Industrial Revolution occurred in Europe much the way it did in the United Kingdom, albeit slightly later. Other European nations began to import steam engines and sought advice from British industrialists. The British advances in technology, wealth, and power inspired them.
Europe, like the UK and its colonies, would quickly enjoy the industrialization process. Europe has begun to make significant technological and scientific advances of its own. This situation would result in an increasing "cross-pollination" of ideas throughout Europe.
When Did the Industrial Revolution Start in Europe?
The Industrial Revolution began in Europe around 1800 when Watt's steam engines were exported to other parts of Europe. Many European countries embraced industrialization using the new machines—France, Germany, Austria, Hungary, and Sweden.
How Did the Industrial Revolution Start in Europe?
The Industrial Revolution began in different European countries for various reasons. Although each nation's resources varied, they were all united by a desire to "catch up" with the UK's growing power.
At the turn of the 19th century, industrialization began to spread across the continent. During this period, Watt steam engines and British expertise began to spread across Europe. The level of development and rate of change varied across the continent. But by the mid-nineteenth century, most countries were well on their way.
Germany, for example, was a late adopter but had risen to become a great industrial power by the end of the late nineteenth century.
Industrialization in Europe
The industrialization process took different paths and at different rates. This process depended on each nation's local resources, political will, and socioeconomic situation.
In France, the political upheavals of the French Revolution slowed the industrial revolution. Napoleon Bonaparte's turbulent reign was in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.
France also lacked the abundant coal resources found in other countries. It also slowed the country's revolution's progress.
At the same time, France relied heavily on handcrafted goods. The government also centrally protected and privileged this industry.
In other countries, a different set of circumstances delayed the adoption of industrialization. Prussia and, later, Germany are examples of such countries.
The Industrial Revolution in Japan
Japan experienced the Industrial Revolution in a very different way than the UK, Europe, and America. The Japanese recognized their potential despite being forced upon them by American envoys. Then they overturned centuries of feudal tradition to become one of the world's most modern nations.
By embracing industrialization, Japan would establish itself as a world power. Japan was on a collision course in the twentieth century with the world's superpowers.
When Did the Industrial Revolution Start in Japan?
The Industrial Revolution in Japan began around 1853. It was when a squadron of American warships forced trade talks with Japan. This situation set off a chain of events leading to Japan's full industrialization by 1900.
How Did the Industrial Revolution Start in Japan?
The Japanese Shogunate severely declined in the first half of the nineteenth century. The Shogunate maintained control through a central bureaucracy and semi-feudal alliances. Japan was beginning to feel the effects of financial pressures from within and without.
Japan has historically maintained an isolationist policy. But growing domestic issues and interference from Western powers began to take their toll.
This resulted in domestic conflicts. It led to the Shogunate's dissolution by proclamation from Emperor Mutsuhito (Meiji) in 1868. In the 1870s, the mighty Samurai would quickly follow, forming a new centralized administration.
Following the abolition of feudalism, Japan established the Ministry of Industry in 1870. It aimed to establish an economic policy and operate specific industries. To provide industrial experience, they built model factories. And an expanded education system provided technical training. After the Samurai revolt in 1877, Japan's social and political reconstruction was completed by 1889.
Private enterprise was involved in the expanding economy, particularly in textiles. Entrepreneurs came from all social classes, and by the 1890s, massive industrial combines (known as zaibatsu) had formed.
By the turn of the twentieth century, Japan was liberated from feudalism. It had embraced and engaged in its industrial revolution. An event that would soon come to define the history of the twentieth century.
Industrialization Effect in Japan
Japan's industrialization resulted in a massive reorganization of the political situation. it also led to military, socioeconomic, and technological restructuring. A western-style army and navy were commissioned and built. New banks were established. And railroad networks and steam vessels improved transportation and communication throughout the country.
Previous restrictions on trade and feudal guilds were lifted. Broad land reforms were implemented quickly. All these changes resulted in the subsequent surge in Japanese population growth. It provided more labor but put a strain on Japan's resources.
Western culture, mainly Western fashion, was widely adopted throughout the country. The government implemented a universal education system, emphasizing the importance of STEM fields.
These changes would fuel Japanese nationalism. And by the 1890s, Japan had officially joined the world's imperialist powers. This issue eventually led to conflicts with China over Korea in 1894 and 1895 and Russia in 1904. (Again, for Korea).
These two victories established them as a new world power at the turn of the 20th century. It resulted in an alliance with Britain in 1902.
Domestic strife was common during this period between more traditional older generations and younger, western-looking youth. This situation would lead to a period of political strife, with frequent elections and, in some cases, political assassinations.
Complete List of Inventions During the Industrial Revolution
A comprehensive list of industrial revolution inventions is beyond the scope of this article. Such a list would fill many giant tomes. Despite this, many critical innovations made during this time are still in use today.
Among the more significant inventions made during this time are the following:
- The Steam Engine
- The Flying Shuttle
- The Spinning Jenny
- The Cotton Gin
- The Telegraph
- Portland Cement
- Modern Roads
- Bessemer Process
- Steam Locomotives
- Power Loom
- Water Frame
- Tin Can/Canning
- The Camera
- The Typewriter
- The Dynamo
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