As we all know, the Industrial Revolution happened during the 18th and 19th centuries and led to far-reaching transformations of society. It was a period when ruler societies that were present in Europe and North America started to become more urban during this era and there was quite a focus on the increase in productivity.
Advances in the manufacturing processes led to innovations in the new technologies that increased the overall efficiency and people started to shift from handmade products to machine-made products and this speed in the processes of technological innovation brought about an array of new tools and machines.
Also, it had practical improvement in various fields such as labor, production, and resource use. This idea gave birth to the setup of factories in the cities and towns, and innovations and inventions were what shaped virtually every existing sector of human activity along with this revolution.
The technological revolution, and acceleration changes, began much earlier than the 18th century and has continued all the way to the present day. Perhaps the merge of technology with industry caused the Industrial Revolution to be most unique. The Industrial Revolution laid the foundations for a more globalized world.
In modern times, all countries across the globe are linked through developments, which began during industrialization. The society we live in today owes much of its contributions and failings in a broad spectrum of fields to the incredible period of innovation that was the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution was the most profound revolution in human history, because of its extensive impact on the daily lives of people. By the end of the 19th century, nearly every society on Earth had been affected by the arrival of new products, new means of transportation, new weapons, and new ideas.
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Industrial Revolution: Preface
The starting point of the industrial revolution was in Great Britain in 1700 which was one of the wealthiest nations in the world and controlled an empire that covered one-quarter of the world’s landmass.
Also, it was a primary factor for giving birth to the mass production of different items and resulted in productivity gains. Increased productivity created a much higher standard of living than had ever been known in the pre-industrial world. Factories based on textile iron were set up during this period which also lead to the development of better systems in the banking communication and transportation sectors.
Industrial Revolution is still considered as one of the significant events that ever happened in the history of humans ever since the earth saw humans. It created quite an impact on different countries and nations which were present around the world as we all know it had it beginning in the 18th century but still had its impact for the centuries to follow.
With every event, we know that there is a very good and bad aspect of things. The industrial revolution also had some positive and negative impacts on society. Some of the Advantages and Disadvantages of the Industrial Revolution will be discussed in a detailed way in the upcoming parts of the article.
Advantages Of Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution made some great positive impact and it has more benefits than it had the negative ones. Some of the advantages of the industrial revolution in points are given as under.
The Production Of More Products
One of the greatest advantages of the industrial revolution was that there was the production of more products and the product started to be manufactured by the machine.
Products were more efficiently made. This really helped the economy to grow. Another advantage was that the products became less expensive as there was less labor work involved and there was a rise of custom-made products.
The innovation made in the manufacturing and the products were invented that help the people make their life much easier and it gave people less time the transportation of products from one place to another. The invention of the steam engine is extra thanks to this phenomenon.
Access To International Market Became Available
Due to the industrial revolution, businesses became able to enhance their supplies from local towns and local cities to the international market. it was one of the ideas that were developed by the industrial revolution.
Due to the use of high-end machines, the production increased but sometimes the local demand was not necessary and wasn't sufficient for the maximization of the production.
It gave the idea of the multinational firm and the businesses were able to expand their sales to the international market not only did the businesses start to fulfill the local demand they also started to fulfill the international demands as well.
People started to see the balancing of trade and produces getting more of it this increase in the wealth of Business and Added Tax revenues.
It led to Competition among markets
Due to the continual development of new or improved production methods and products and mass production and multiple products that were made in different industries or factories, the global market had been developed and excess goods were not a problem.
So consumers had a wide variety of options to choose from and could best meet their own needs. The industrial revolution caused the power shift from businesses to the hands of the consumers.
Invention And Production Of Quite Useful Products
Industrial Revolution gave birth to the invention and production of quite useful products due to. During the industrial revolution there was a sudden rise in the invention and development of vehicles and tool types which had the ability to carry more items and people for their transportation from one place to another there was also the rise of the creation of roads which held the power to accommodate more traffic.
One of the greatest inventions of that time was the development of the telegraph with helped in improving the overall communication process and laid the basis for the invention of the telephone and fiber optics which are considered as a huge part of a delay in everyday life.
Another greatest invention of that time for the spinning Jenny which was made in a way that it could spin cotton or wool and eased for the creation of more things in the same or even lesser time. electricity was also invented which led to the invention of some really useful tools like refrigeration and other advanced home appliances with increasing the overall living standard.
Purchasing Power Of The Local People Quite Increased
One of the greatest advantages of the industrial revolution is that the purchasing power of the local people quite increased. It also led to an idea of the creation of products in their basement.
Families were producing enough to meet their needs and if you didn't have the stuff to make your everyday item then it wasn't necessary you will have to spend a fortune for getting the thing you wanted.
Industrial Revolution introduced processes that let the companies produce faster than ever before, this increased in the mass production and the overall productivity that in a given number of hours more product was able to be made and it wasn't needed to make products by hand and as the supplies went up it resulted in the prices going down which increased the overall purchasing power of the local people and the goods were not expensive as they were used to be.
The rapid evolution in medicine
Throughout the industrial revolution, there have been accounts of poor living conditions and through the use and application of new technologies, many diseases constantly spread and accounted for many deaths in industrial cities.
So scientists started to discover cures for them which in turn also helped to lower the risk of disease and raise life expectancy. Industrial revolutions put medical advancements in the position we are in today with public health and life expectancy.
Creating more job opportunities
In the industrial revolution era that shifting from an agricultural to an urban society began, different jobs were created in new fields and areas that did not previously exist.
There were new skills to be acquired and technological achievements of this era drove to the creation of new jobs.
This era allow many immigrants to come to industrial cities for better job opportunities and a better way of life and also their incomes rose that in emerging economies lifted hundreds of millions of people out of poverty.
And however, Businesses provided a better condition of living than farming.
Disadvantages Of Industrial Revolution
As there were positive aspects to the industrial revolution. There were also some negative aspects which included worst working conditions, poor living conditions, low wages, child labor land pollution.
One of the most negative impacts of the industrial revolution was the introduction of capitalism as an economic system.
Capitalism totally revolves around individualism in which government has almost no to very little power for making the economic decisions of the country.
This phenomenon seriously gave birth to a climate where the factory and mine owners held the power to destroy rights and make working-class people to work for their benefit. In the aftermath, the working conditions of the people really got worse and child labor became one of the main features of the industrial revolution.
It got so bad that even a child as young as 3 years old was working in an unsafe and dangerous environmental condition without having any kind of protection from the government.
The Safety Of Working People Was Threatened
One of the worst disadvantages of the industrial revolution was the working conditions of workplaces. The industrial revolution led to the placement of factories in cities and industrial communities.
The only target of the business owners was to increase their production and gain more profit and really didn't really look upon the wages and the worker’s safety.
Although the families were able to earn more it came with various policies like working for 16 hours and 6 days per week they were also in inequality present among the men and women's earning and women and children were only able to earn as half as much of the man while working the same as me.
The workplaces environment was bad and had the smoke that led to breathing issues and injuries and fatal accident although this ultimately led to the development of labor unions among the factories but there was a lot of sacrifices made by the families never present in that era.
Unequal Share Of Wealth
Before the industrial revolution occurred the wealth was only restricted to the people who were very rich from birth, or had their belongings in the royalty or invented something that was quite useful to the society like a telescope.
After the revolution happened the people who were setting up factories and leading businesses started making more money but most of it was by jeopardizing the rights of the poor and working-class and it led to inequality and unjustifiable distributions of the money between the rich and poor.
The wealthier between wealthier and the poor became poorer a. If I talk about Jeff Bezos who is the wealthiest man on the planet before his divorce proceeded he had 157 billion/ his wealth along the wealth of Mark Zuckerberg Bill Gates and Elon Musk are the living examples of the inequality conversions.
If you take a look at industrialists like Andrew Carnegie and John Rockefeller they both had 310 billion and 340 Billion respectively. Rockefeller all by itself controls 1.5 % of the overall American economy.
The Excess Of Pollution
Pollution is one of the biggest negative factors of the industrial revolution during the industrial revolution, there are huge amounts of streets and waterways which were quite heavily polluted with garbage and human waste.
Not only this the air was also heavily polluted. Throughout the 18th and 19th century when Industrial Revolution was happening, all the people that set factories and mines all across Great Britain and they really didn't care about the environmental aspects.
Those factories were great producers of air pollution which happened due to the burning of coal which was one of the most famous fuels that was used during the industrial revolution and it’s really known for empowering the steam engine.
Coal is considered and it is also a fact that is one of the heavy air polluters as it sends particles into the air. This led to the very worst air quality and created smoke all over the cities in which industries were present.
More use of finite fuel resource
Industries and factories need fossil fuels to develop their processes. They began to use soil, minerals, trees, oil, and water to continue producing items.
These resources are finite and one day will run out. This disadvantage led to global challenges that included air pollution biodiversity reduction, water pollution, habitat destruction, and even global warming.
One of the drivers of this problem is carbon dioxide. Before 1750, the level of CO2 in the atmosphere was about 290 parts per million. It was 400 parts per million by volume in 2017.
Just A handful of countries benefited
The industrial changes created the categorization of developed and developing countries.
Just a limited number of countries like Europe the United States, Belgium, France, and Germany benefit from its advantages.
But other countries didn’t get a similar experience. We are in the 21 century and there are still countries that are not completely industrialized.
The rapid increase in the population of Cities and Industrial Towns
Massive amounts of farmers and their families immigrated to the cities from the countryside to get a better job working in the newly developed factories and mines.
The authorities of the countries were faced with the challenge of how to handle the influx of immigrants. Problems like the availability of housing, overcrowding, and the spread of the infectious disease had to be addressed as quickly as possible, and led to a higher percentage of illness and made it easier for disease to spread.